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Encrypted Traffic Analysis to Uncover Command & Control (C2) ActivityMalicious threat actors and malware system operators communicate with infected target systems using a set of techniques called Command and Control (C2). Threat actors employ C2 techniques to mimic expected, benign traffic using common ports and standard encryption protocols to avoid detection. Despite these precautions, Encrypted Traffic Analysis with machine learning effectively uncovered different types of C2 activity.
In summary, ETA combined with machine learning techniques effectively identifies malicious C2 activity on the network. Despite having no visibility into the content of the exchange, ETA tells us a great deal about encrypted traffic and provides valuable insights to aid network defenders.
Step 1: Since the sniffing device, client device and AP are useng RF generating radios for transmission or reception, it helps to have your wireless sniffer close to your target device (the client machine). This allows your sniffing device to capture a good approximation of what your client device hears over the air.
Step 2: Use a separate device to act as your wireless sniffer. You cannot take a good wireless sniffer trace if it is running on the device under test (the client machine you want to get a wireless trace of).
When you try to analyze or troubleshoot a wireless LAN network that uses 802.11 packet analyzer requires you to have a thorough understanding of different 802.11 frame types as a basis to find pointers to localize the causes of the problem area in a wlan network . Take wlan sniffer traces that use tools like omnipeek and / or wireshark where you can monitor the communications between radio network interface cards (NICs) and access points. You need to comprehend each frame type occurring in the operation of a wireless LAN and solves network problems. In a wlan RF environment the radio transmission conditions can change so dynamically, coordination becomes a large issue in WLANs. Management and control packets are dedicated to these coordination functions.
Bydefault Windows restricts the execution of Powershell scripts, so you will needto update the execution policy on your machine. To do this open a Powershellwindow and temporarily set the policy to unrestricted with this command:
While Nmap attempts to produce accurate results, keep in mindthat all of its insights are based on packets returned by the targetmachines (or firewalls in front of them). Such hosts may beuntrustworthy and send responses intended to confuse or mislead Nmap.Much more common are non-RFC-compliant hosts that do not respond asthey should to Nmap probes. FIN, NULL, and Xmas scans areparticularly susceptible to this problem. Such issues are specific tocertain scan types and so arediscussed in the individual scan type entries.
TCP connect scan is the default TCP scan type when SYN scan isnot an option. This is the case when a user does not have raw packetprivileges. Instead of writing rawpackets as most other scan types do, Nmap asks the underlyingoperating system to establish a connection with the target machine andport by issuing the connect system call. This isthe same high-level system call that web browsers, P2P clients, andmost other network-enabled applications use to establish a connection.It is part of a programming interface known as the Berkeley SocketsAPI. Rather than read raw packet responses off the wire, Nmap usesthis API to obtain status information on each connection attempt.
When SYN scan is available, it is usually a better choice. Nmaphas less control over the high level connect callthan with raw packets, making it less efficient. The system callcompletes connections to open target ports rather than performing thehalf-open reset that SYN scan does. Not only does this take longerand require more packets to obtain the same information, but targetmachines are more likely to log the connection. A decent IDS willcatch either, but most machines have no such alarm system. Manyservices on your average Unix system will add a note to syslog, andsometimes a cryptic error message, when Nmap connects and then closesthe connection without sending data. Truly pathetic services crashwhen this happens, though that is uncommon. An administrator who seesa bunch of connection attempts in her logs from a single system shouldknow that she has been connect scanned.
Nmap detects rate limiting and slows down accordingly to avoidflooding the network with useless packets that the target machine willdrop. Unfortunately, a Linux-style limit of one packet per secondmakes a 65,536-port scan take more than 18 hours. Ideas for speedingyour UDP scans up include scanning more hosts in parallel, doing aquick scan of just the popular ports first, scanning from behind thefirewall, and using --host-timeout to skip slowhosts.
This scan relies on an implementation detail of a minority ofsystems out on the Internet, so you can't always trust it. Systemsthat don't support it will usually return all portsclosed. Of course, it is possible that the machinereally has no open ports. If most scanned ports areclosed but a few common port numbers (such as 22,25, 53) are filtered, the system is most likelysusceptible. Occasionally, systems will even show the exact oppositebehavior. If your scan shows 1,000 open ports and three closed or filteredports, then those three may very well be the truly open ones.
Besides being extraordinarily stealthy (due to its blind nature), this scan type permits mapping out IP-based trust relationships between machines. The port listing shows open ports from the perspective of the zombie host. So you can try scanning a target using various zombies that you think might be trusted (via router/packet filter rules).
IP protocol scan allows you to determine which IP protocols(TCP, ICMP, IGMP, etc.) are supported by target machines. This isn'ttechnically a port scan, since it cycles through IP protocol numbersrather than TCP or UDP port numbers. Yet it still uses the-p option to select scanned protocol numbers, reportsits results within the normal port table format, and even uses the sameunderlying scan engine as the true port scanning methods. So it isclose enough to a port scan that it belongs here.
The way the Windows networking code works probably means that packetsare sent on a "VLAN interface" rather than the "raw" device, so packetssent by the machine will only be seen when you capture on the "VLANinterface". If so, you will be unable to see outgoing packets whencapturing on the "raw" device, so you are stuck with a choice betweenseeing VLAN headers and seeing outgoing packets.
At least on x86-based machines, Linux can get high-resolution timestamps on newer processors with the Time Stamp Counter (TSC) register;for example, Intel x86 processors, starting with the Pentium Pro, andincluding all x86 processors since then, have had a TSC, and othervendors probably added the TSC at some point to their families of x86processors. The Linux kernel must be configured with the CONFIG_X86_TSCoption enabled in order to use the TSC. Make sure this option is enabledin your kernel.
In this demonstration, the client device (windows 10 machine) roams from AP1 to AP2. Both access points are from Aerohive and placed optimally to encourage client roaming. The mac address of client device is 0028:f8ab:cb51 and the authenticator address (BSSID) of AP1 is c413:e23d:40e5 and of AP2 is c413:e23d:8965. The following is a step by step procedure to demonstrate the process of roaming using OKC. 2b1af7f3a8